During the rule of Vratislav II (1061–1092, crowned 1085/1086) and his immediate successors, Vyšehrad was the chief Přemyslid residence. It is likely that its imposing architecture temporarily overshadowed the traditional Přemyslid residence at Hradčany. The south-western part of the fortified area of Vyšehrad is considered to be the core of the former castle – acropolis. The most significant residential buildings were concentrated there beginning in the Early Middle Ages. A moat separated it from the remaining castle area on the north and east. The existing findings about the Vyšehrad acropolis in its historically exceptional period in the last third of the 11th century were rather meagre. Based on the newly recognised relics of structures and other indications, it may be presumed that the castle not only had a stone fortification but also a sumptuous palace. The location and size of the palace probably corresponded to the Romanesque residence of Prince Soběslav at Prague Castle built along with the stone fortification after 1135.
Vyšehrad underwent extensive reconstruction during the rule of Charles IV. The newly built fortification of the New Town of Prague was connected to the Vyšehrad walls which also underwent significant changes. The ruler’s court – acropolis – was enclosed by walls with battlements and defence towers. The castle gates are documented on the north and south-east where the monumental gate called Špička (Peak) was erected. The latter also appears in many later historical depictions. The residential buildings of the High Middle Ages were built gradually along the fortification wall above the Vltava; the first ones were built simultaneously with the fortification in which they were included. Unlike the previous period which used marlstone and limestone, local sandstone and greywacke were the building materials. The buildings, traditionally called palaces, were one-winged and two-storeyed at a minimum. The upper storeys were wooden or half-timbered. The structure situated along the southern line of the fortification wall, which is still called the Old Burgrave’s Residence, appears to have fulfilled its role beginning in the Middle Ages. The other two buildings were incorporated into the western line of the walls. The structure which is southeast–southwest oriented and situated adjacent to the newly identified medieval palace is regarded as a representative building.
Datum vložení: 21.1.2019 | Datum aktualizace: 31.8.2020
Autor: Ivana Boháčová